Skip to Content

Electronic marks

Help for writers

Electronic document proofreader's marks

These changes can be marked electronically, on screen. There is no agreed standard yet but these are recognised, especially in academic and technical publications.

In-line mark



Faulty abbreviation


Misuse of adjective or adverb


Error in agreement


Inappropriate diction


Awkward construction


Error in bibliography form




Set in brackets


Error in case form


Use capital letter


Missing source citation
or error in form of citation


Close up


Coherence lacking


Be more concise


Coordination needed or faulty


Comma splice


Error in diction




Inadequate development


Incorrect word division


Dangling modifier


Emphasis lacking or faulty


Inexact word


Sentence fragment


Fused sentence


Error in grammar


Error in use of hyphen


Insert in line


Incomplete construction






Use lowercase letter


Faulty logic


Mixed construction


Misplaced modifier


Meaning unclear


Error in manuscript form


Merge paragraphs


Comma not needed


Error in use of numbers


New paragraph


Paragraph not coherent


Paragraph not developed


Paragraph not unified


Error in punctuation


Ineffective passive voice


Error in pronoun reference


Unnecessary repetition


Replace in line


Revise or proofread


Set in Roman numerals


Run-on (fused) sentence




Misspelled word


Spell out


Be more specific




Subordination needed or faulty






Error in verb tense


Error in tense sequence




Transition needed


Vary sentence structure


Error in verb form




Wrong word


Faulty parallelism


Insert space


Obvious error




Something missing


Meaning unclear

Comments and marks should be enclosed by square brackets, in bold type.


Back to Proof-reader's marks